WET PROCESSING OF DENIM
As we saw in the previous blog post, the various stages in Dry Processing, now we will look into the types of Wet Processing.
The unwashed denim is rough and the color is too dark and is called Rigid.
To get a desired look and feel on the rigid Denim, it goes through a series of techniques from subtle washes to stonewashing to acid washing.
Let’s look into the various types of washing:
The denims are processed in Industrial washing machines:
- Desizing- Desizing is the first step in the garment processing of denim. As the name implies in this process sizing is removed. Before weaving a mixture of chemicals called size is applied to the yarns to make them strong to withstand the process of weaving. But the size has to be removed prior to any process on the garment otherwise it can interfere in the processing and can cause defects in the garment.
2. Stone wash- In olden times Denims were washed with Pumice Stones (Volcanic Rock) to break them and soften them up. Stone wash would often result in damage to machinery and the garments. For this reason Enzymes have replaced Pumice stones to give the same worn out look and softness.
3. Enzyme Wash- Enzymes have replaced pumice stones to get the washed look. They act on the cellulose and clean up the surface to give a bright and soft denim.
4. Acid Wash- There is no acid used in this wash but a distinct wash look is achieved using chemicals like Bleach and Potassium Permanganate along with thermocol balls . Here the thermocol balls are carriers of the chemical used instead of water.
5. Random Bleach- This process involves fading of the denim dis orderly. The color fading is not uniform. This is achieved using specially made fabric bits along with Bleach or Potassium Permanganate. Novel and fashion effects can be achieved by this wash and is also called as Rag wash/Statue wash/Towel Wash.
6. Bleaching- Denims can be made dark blue, medium blue and light blue by a process called Bleaching. The desized and enzyme washed denims will be in dark blue colour. With additional process of bleaching Medium Blue and Light Blue Denims are made. Sodium Hypochlorite commonly known as Liquid Bleach is widely used for Bleaching.
7. Neutralising- After any fading process using Bleach or Potassium Permanganate the denim has to be rid of these chemicals. This is called neutralisation and involves use of chemicals like Sodium meta Bisulfite or Hydrogen peroxide. If proper neutralisation is not done it will result in garment damage, yellowing or Patchy washed look.
8. Overdyeing- Normal denims are in a regular range of colors from dark Blue to light blue and black. But these regular denims can be again dyed to give different shades. Denim Garments are dyed in different stages like after Desizing or Enzyme to get newer shade bands.
These processes are done depending on what kind of shades, tone of colour is required on the denim. Denims can be customized to any desired colour through the above processes.
You can checkout our website where we provide option for custom jeans.