HOW IS DENIM FABRIC MADE?
Denim was initially worn as a work-wear then it became a fashionable statement for the hippies. Over the decades, Denim has now become an everyday casual wear and is predominantly a big market. And it is a preferable wear not only for teenagers but for the elderly as well. It suits anyone and everyone; anywhere across the world!
Let’s look into how the Denim Fabric is made.
The process is as follows:
- Cotton is grown across the world in Americas, Asia, Egypt, Africa and Australia. India is the second largest producer of Cotton after China. The cotton fibre is spun to yarn and then made into a fabric. In India, Cotton is cultivated in more than 12 states; the largest producer of Cotton is Gujarat. Cotton is harvested by hand or machine.
- The separation of the cotton fibre from the seeds is done manually whereas in other countries it is done with the use of machines.
- In the Ginning factory, the fibre is put into bales (a standard weight). A bale weighs around 400 pounds in India.
- Spinning- In the Spinning mill, the bale is put into a blow room where it is opened, mixed and cleaned- this process is called Carding. After which they are pulled into a web-like form called slivers and are spun into yarn. This process is called Combing.
- Warp threads run lengthwise parallel to selvage and weft threads run along the width of the fabric. The yarn is dyed with Indigo color such as the classic denim blue. Only the warp threads are dyed blue, the weft threads remain undyed and are off-white in color.
- The yarn is then woven in a shuttle loom or waterjet loom or airjet loom or projectile loom into Denim. The yarn undergoes a twill weave preferably 3*1 where 3 warp threads are interlaced with 1 weft thread / filler thread. And the dominant color – blue is seen on the surface, i.e; one can see the indigo dyed warp threads on the surface.
- The denim fabric is then sent to Garment Manufacturing units where the Denim garments are made and undergo Dry Processing and Wet Processing.
- Once the Finishing is done, it is packed and sent to the market or retailers.
Well, isn’t that interesting-The entire process of creating your DENIM!